Sir Isaac Newton, an English mathematician, astronomer and physicist, one of the most influential scientists of all time, led the foundation of classical mechanics. He made several notable contributions in optics. He formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation. He built the first reflecting telescope and developed the sophisticated theory of white light decomposing into the colors of the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling, calculated the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid.

Niels Henrik David Bohr, a Danish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, made great contributions to atomic structure and quantum theory. He developed the Bohr model of the atom with discrete energy levels and revolution of electrons around nucleus. He investigated atoms and radiations emanating from them. His one of the greatest contribution has been international peace agreement on nuclear energy.

Albert Einstein, a German physicist later shifting to Switzerland, Nobel Prize laureate, developed the theory of relativity. He is most famously remembered for mass – energy equivalence formula E = mc^2. His most notable contribution includes the law of photoelectric effect.

James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish scientist, formulated the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism have led to a great revolution. His contribution to science is none less than the greatest.

Michael Faraday, an English scientist, contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry with main discoveries including the principles underlying

electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis.

Richard Phillips Feynman, an American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum

electrodynamics, and the physics of the super-fluidity of super-cooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics.

Ernest Rutherford, a New Zealand-born British physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, is known as the father of nuclear physics. He discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, proved that radioactivity involved the nuclear transmutation of one chemical element to another, and also differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation.

Werner Karl Heisenberg, a German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, was one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. His theory of uncertainty principle is best known.

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger, Austrian Physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory which formed the basis of wave mechanics.

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, discovered energy quanta which are nowadays regarded as the birth of quantum physics. His discovery of Planck’s constant enabled new set of physical units.