Top 10 Indian Mathematicians and their Contributions are: –
Aryabhata, the first of the major mathematicians from Pataliputra now know as Patna in Bihar in India, worked on the place value system using letters to signify numbers and stating qualities. He, author of several treatises on mathematics and astronomy, discovered the position of nine planets and stated that these planets revolve around the sun. He also stated the correct number of days in a year that is 365.
Brahmagupta, author of two early works on mathematics and astronomy, was often regarded as the greatest scientist of his race. His most significant contribution was the introduction of zero (0) to the mathematics which stood for “nothing” which stood as the basis of decimal number system besides various algebraic, geometry and arithmetic theory.
Srinivasa Iyengar Ramanujan, an Indian mathematician and autodidact who lived during British rule, is one of the celebrated Indian mathematicians. His important
contributions to the field include Hardy-Ramanujan-Littlewood circle method in number theory, Roger-Ramanujan’s identities in partition of numbers, work on algebra of
inequalities, elliptic functions, continued fractions, partial sums, products of hypergeometric series besides various other mathematical analysis, number theory and infinite series. His birth day, 22nd December, is celebrated as State IT Day in Tamil Nadu and National Mathematics Day in India.
Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, an Indian scientist and applied statistician best remembered for the Mahalanobis distance, a statistical measure, is the founder of Indian Statistical Institute as well as the National Sample Surveys for which he gained international recognition and was one of the members of the first planning commission of free India. He made pioneering contribution in anthropometry. His birthday on 29th June is celebrated as National Statistical Day.
Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao, an Indian born American mathematician and statistician, known as C R Rao is famous for his “theory of estimation. He is regarded as a living legend whose work is not only limited to statistics but in the field of economics, genetics, anthropology, geology, national planning, demography, biometry, and medicine as well. He was the main force in establishing The Asian Statistical Institute now known as Statistical Institute for Asia and Pacific. His best know contributions are the Cramer – Rao bound and the Rao – Blackwell theorem besides others like Fisher – Rao Theorem, Rao distance, Rao measure and orthogonal arrays.
Dattathreya Ramchandra Kaprekar, Indian recreational mathematician, known as “Ganitanand”, discovered several results in number theory, described various properties of numbers including a class of numbers and a constant named after him like the Kaprekar, Harshad and Self numbers or Devlali numbers, Demlo numbers and discovered the Kaprekar constants. He also constructed certain types of magic squares related to the Copernicus magic square.
Harish Chandra, Indian American Mathematician and physicist, is famously known for infinite dimensional group representation theory especially harmonic analysis on
semisimple Lie groups.
Bhāskara II, titled ‘II’ to differentiate him from another legend bearing same name, was one of the greatest mathematicians the world has ever seen and astronomer who
defined the dimensions of zero and infinity and authored Siddhanta Siromani and Karan Kautuhala. His genius in calculus predates Newton and Leibniz by over half a
millennium and is known for the discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations. Using an astronomical model developed by Brahmagupta in the 7th century, Bhaskara accurately defined many astronomical quantities.
Bhāskara I, titled ‘I’ to differentiate him from another legend bearing same name, known for Bhashara I’s sine approximation formula, was a 7th-century mathematician, who was the first to write numbers in the Hindu decimal system with a circle for the zero and also wrote two astronomical works the Mahābhāskarīya and the Laghubhāskarīya. His most important mathematical contribution concerns the representation of numbers in a positional system.
Narendra Krishna Karmarkar, an Indian mathematician, was well known researcher popular for the Karmarkar’s algorithm. He invented a polynomial algorithm for linear
programming also known as the interior point method.